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Two social movements your high school history textbook probably missed

Think back to your high school history textbooks and try to recall how much space publishers allocated to various social justice movements. Columnist Aram Ghoogasian argued that textbooks’ underrepresentation of different communities’ histories generates the misunderstanding efforts like the recently passed College of Letters and Science’s diversity requirement aims to remediate. Here are two social movements you might have missed in primary textbook publishers’ effort to save space or erase alternative interpretations of history.

The American Indian Movement

Feb. 8, 1887 – Congress passed the Dawes Act, which allowed Native American tribal land to be federally divided and allocated to Native Americans.

  • Native Americans were incentivized with citizenship to live in the federally allocated zones, in isolation from their former tribes.
  • The goal of the act was to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream society to reduce conflicts that were ongoing until the early 1900s.
  • The act led to the dispossession of lands among many Native American tribes and was a direct attack on Native American culture until Franklin D. Roosevelt passed the Indian Reorganization Act in 1934, which outlawed allocation.

Nov. 9, 1969 – Richard Oakes along with a group of Indian supporters started a symbolic occupation of Alcatraz Island, which soon turned into a full-scale occupation that lasted 19 months.

• Though its exact history among indigenous people is unknown, Alcatraz Island is a part of multiple Native American groups’ pasts. After becoming a federal prison, it held many Native American prisoners.

• The occupation evolved into a movement to reclaim the deed to the island and establish an American Indian university. Though federal negotiators tried to offer much smaller concessions, the movement grew in strength and refused to accept anything less than their original requests.

• Though participants were eventually removed from the island by the Nixon administration, it is partially credited with shifting the tone of American policies that granted Native Americans more autonomy in their rights and access to land.

Aug. 11, 1978 – The American Indian Religious Freedom Act became a federal law which granted Native Americans access to sacred lands and objects.

• The law was intended to address the problems created by the government’s mass reallocations of Native Americans over two centuries. The division and redistribution of indigenous territory left tribes without access to many of the sacred lands core in their religious beliefs and shared culture.

• The legislation also protected the use and preservation of formerly illegal objects used in worship, such as animal bones and peyote.

• Symbolically, the law also acknowledged that the federal government had infringed upon Native Americans’ religious freedom through past policies and sought to remediate the injustice.

The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Movement

June 23, 1952 – Dale Jennings, who was arrested in what is now MacArthur Park for lewd behavior and allegedly soliciting a police officer, went to trial.

  • Jennings was a founding member of the Mattachine Society, a Los Angeles gay activist group started in 1950 by gay men to advocate for their rights. The group publicized his case, drawing in volunteers and donations.
  • The society created a committee to bring attention to the issue of police entrapment. Members said police officers purposefully engaged suspected homosexuals in order to charge them with lewd behavior and believed the practice should be outlawed.
  • Jennings admitted to being homosexual, but pled not guilty to the charges. Most men entrapped by the police at the time pled guilty to avoid public scrutiny. The jury voted to acquit Jennings, finding evidence of police intimidation, harassment and entrapment.

Jan. 13, 1958 – The Supreme Court of the United States decided the first amendment applies to LGBT culture in ONE Inc. v. Olesen.

  • Los Angeles Postmaster Otto Olesen, the United States Post Office Department and the Federal Bureau of Investigation objected to some of the content published in ONE: The Homosexual Magazine, including some pulp fiction and erotica, on the grounds that it was obscene, lascivious and filthy.
  • Eric Julber, a young attorney who had authored one of the magazine’s cover stories, filed an injunction against Olesen. Before the Supreme Court, the district and appeals courts rejected his suit, deciding that an injunction would imply homosexuals exist as a privileged class.
  • The Supreme Court reversed the lower courts’ decisions without hearing any oral argument. ONE Inc. wrote in its next issue that the decision affirmed that homosexual relationships and their descriptions were not obscene.

June 28, 1969 – After a police raid at the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York City, violent protests erupted in the streets and lasted for six days. This uprising has come to be known as the Stonewall Riots.

  • The riots came at a time when there were still strict laws against sodomy and homosexuality, which was considered a mental disorder.
  • LGBT individuals were some of the most marginalized, and had extremely low social prospects because of systematic discrimination.
  • It is one of the first important protests on behalf of equal rights for LGBT individuals, and was a catalyst for several pro-equality movements on behalf of these communities.

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Arthur Wang: New college application can offer increased accessibility, counseling

You might remember college application season as a confusing, daunting and anxiety-inducing time. Part of the stress comes from the fact that there are so many different application systems and forms to navigate.

Well, guess what? There’s going to be another one soon – it’s called the Coalition Application. As the name implies, the new application aims to compete with and challenge the current juggernaut of the industry – if we could call it one – the Common Application.

At the outset, the Coalition App, which currently has a roster of 80 top schools – including all the Ivy League universities – signing on to use it, will only further complicate the college admissions process, especially if students must write additional and differentiated personal statements.

We mustn’t be so quick to judge, though. Since few details have been released, there’s no way to determine every consequence of what the application will mean for college admissions or the University of California system. However, there’s at least two big ways the Coalition Application can shake up the application process.

The first is a commitment to access. When top colleges are accused of lacking socioeconomic diversity, the problem boils down to elite high schools possessing an embarrassment of riches – in this case, college counseling and student advising – while poor high schools in underserved communities have an embarrassing lack of resources. The Coalition Application will attempt to mitigate the latter problem by asking students, if they’d like, to begin constructing a portfolio as freshmen and periodically update it with the typical components of a college application – club memberships, writing samples, coursework – through the fall of senior year.

This alleviates the pressure associated with vain attempts to recount all the important details in a student’s life during three years of school leading up to application season. But the more important feature is that college admissions officers can access and view these portfolios as early as freshman year and offer students advice and direction. This is the sort of assistance that is regularly offered to privileged students at top high schools. Now, even a resource-strapped student in an inner-city high school can receive the pointers they desperately need, and probably otherwise wouldn’t receive until the beginning of senior year – as was the case for myself.

It will also work to reverse an expensive trend. For top students – the sort applying to schools now choosing to use the Coalition Application – declining admit rates and ever-increasing selectivity has compelled most students to apply to many, many more colleges than those before us. A typical senior receiving college advising may be advised to apply to, say, nine colleges, dividing those into three tiers sorted by admissions chances. This is because college is increasingly being viewed as a tough gamble rather than a selection process.

With information from the Coalition Application, college counselors can inform prospective applicants earlier on in the process that they are a good “fit” for the college – and elite schools are nearly all interested in shaping entering cohorts with a certain synergy and dynamic by considering the character and background of applicants, rather than just their grades. While such notifications won’t quash that admissions anxiety nor serve as a guarantee for admission, it can be a slight peace of mind and compel applicants to save time – and money – by not applying to, say, 15 colleges. That might throw the overrated U.S. News & World Report ranking out of whack since it has historically factored in selectivity in its ranking.

Would any of this affect the UC, which likely won’t ditch a native application it has spent time and money developing? That depends on how popular the Coalition Application becomes. If the application’s model becomes popular enough, the UC may choose to imitate it in the interest of attracting more low-income applicants.

For these reasons, and so many more, the Coalition Application shouldn’t be written off just because only the best colleges have skin in the game.

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Suggestions for dineLA’s Happy Hour Week

dineLA is bastion for every poor foodie in Los Angeles. For one week almost every prestigious and scrumptious restaurant in L.A. joins together to offer special menus at steep discounts. While the traditional dineLA happened in January this year, dineLA has begun a new venture, Happy Hour Week. From April 27 to May 1, some of the swankiest places in Los Angles are inviting people to check them out while offering special cheep drink menus and other light food options. Here are Mojo’s picks for the best Happy Hour spots close to campus for you to check out this week. And sorry, younger Bruins, this is going to be a 21+ affair.

 

Living Room Bar @ W Los Angeles Hotel  

Located right on Hilgard, this location is the closest to campus. Open every day this week from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. Monday through Friday, they will be serving a small menu of drinks. Go ahead and try a metropolitan with templeton rye, raspberries and basil. Or maybe a mojito made with champagne. If you get hungry, you can also get some Wagyu sliders.

 

Fundamental LA

You can find Fundamental LA right in the middle of Westwood Village . Happy hour will be 5:30 p.m. to 7 p.m. Tuesday through Saturday, so prime time to blow off some stress post-midterms. The options at Fundamental LA are not mixed drinks, but an assortment of fine wines and exotic beers, both on draft and in bottle.

 

Craft Los Angeles 

Leaving Westwood behind, you might need an Uber or an awesome friend to make it to Craft. Located in Century City, it’s not too far away. This location is beautiful, and there is a good reason why it has thousands of online reviews (spoiler: it’s because it’s good). From 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday, Craft will be hosting its Happy Hour. There is a lot more food being offered here, so you can turn this adventure into an early dinner and try some white wine and cheese fondue, or maybe a salmon rillette.  You can wash those down with your choice of pilsner, house wine or “Hollywood Bowl” Bourbon punch. (Which is probably better than the punch you’re used to.)

 

The Penthouse at the Huntley

Ocean view restaurant in Santa Monica for Happy Hour? Yes, please. We round off our list with this posh location. The price is a little higher here, but the Snapchat story you’ll have as a result just might be worth it. From 4 p.m. to 7 p.m. Monday through Friday, you can take in the view as you chow down on some short rib tacos and prosciutto flat bread. In addition try out some of its exclusive dineLA drinks, like the sangria or tullamore dew old fashioned.

 

 

 

 

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Throwback: Humans Have Been Weird All Along

A lot of things happened last week:

  1.  Two llamas ran free on the streets of Sun City, Arizona.
  2. The apparently blue and black dress broke the Internet. (I’m still convinced it’s white and gold.)
  3. The Conservative Political Action Conference took place in Washington DC.
  4. The war in Syria still went on.

It’s likely, of course, that the first two were widely popular and overshadowed the latter two; absurdity and stupid things attract human attention.

People like to claim that our generation is the anomaly, a group that cares more about llamas and strange dresses than it should. I wouldn’t give us all that credit, though. Stupid trends are a lot bigger than our generation–they accompanied mankind for a very long time. Here’s the evidence:

 

Pole-sitting:

It all started in 1924 when a man was dared to sit on a flagpole. He sat there for 13 hours and 13 minutes. Not long after that, everyone was drawing up a pole in their backyards and sitting on it. This was supposed to be the cool thing to do. People sat and poles and waited to become heroes in society. It was a form of entertainment apparently. The 1920s record for sitting on a pole was 21 days. However, this trend didn’t die with the 20s. Peggy Townsend sat on a pole for 217 days in 1963, and actually received a marriage proposal while she was still up there. H. David Werder sat on a pole for 439 days in 1983 and broke her record.

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Goldfish Swallowing

I thought it was quite disgusting when Jonah Hill swallowed that goldfish in “The Wolf of Wall Street.” Turns out that the act has a longer history than that scene. In 1939 there was a weird college fad. It entailed students swallowing live goldfish and chasing them with different things such as mashed potatoes, mayonnaise, ketchup, soda pop and orange juice. It is claimed that this started with a $10 dare at Harvard. Goldfish swallowing quickly became a way for colleges to compete and the title of “Intercollegiate Goldfish Swallowing Champion” was fairly prestigious. Someone at Clark University swallowed 89 fish! This is just another reason to be grateful we weren’t around to witness 1939.

 

Panty Raids

Back in the 50s male students would assemble and then march to female residences in the pursuit to steal undergarments. The first panty raid happened at the University of Michigan in the 1952. Campus authorities and college newspapers sided with sanity – they were against it. UCLA participated in panty raids back then. The Daily Bruin proposed that book raids from the library should replace this trend as a symbol of the transition from desire for panties to the desire for knowledge. Go Bruins?

 

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